Financial Planning and Capital Structure

  1. The use of personal borrowing to change the overall amount of financial leverage to which an individual is exposed is called:
    1. homemade leverage.
    2. dividend recapture.
    3. the weighted average cost of capital.
    4. private debt placement.
    5. personal offset
  2. The proposition that the value of the firm is independent of its capital structure is called:
    1. the capital asset pricing model.
    2. MM Proposition I.
    3. MM Proposition II.
    4. the law of one price.
    5. the efficient markets hypothesis.
  3. The proposition that the cost of equity is a positive linear function of capital structure is called:
    1. the capital asset pricing model.
    2. MM Proposition I.
    3. MM Proposition II.
    4. the law of one price.
    5. the efficient markets hypothesis.
  4. The tax savings of the firm derived from the deductibility of interest expense is called the:
    1. interest tax shield.
    2. depreciable basis.
    3. financing umbrella.
    4. current yield.
    5. tax-loss carryforward savings.
  5. The unlevered cost of capital is:
    1. the cost of capital for a firm with no equity in its capital structure.
    2. the cost of capital for a firm with no debt in its capital structure.
    3. the interest tax shield times pretax net income.
    4. the cost of preferred stock for a firm with equal parts debt and common stock in its capital structure.
    5. equal to the profit margin for a firm with some debt in its capital structure.
  6. The cost of capital for a firm, WACC, in a zero tax environment is:
    1. equal to the expected earnings divided by market value of the unlevered firm.
    2. equal to the rate of return for that business risk class.
    3. equal to the overall rate of return required on the levered firm.
    4. is constant regardless of the amount of leverage.
    5. All of the above.
  7. The difference between a market value balance sheet and a book value balance sheet is that a market value balance sheet:
    1. places assets on the right hand side.
    2. places liabilities on the left hand side.
    3. does not equate the right hand with the left hand side.
    4. lists items in terms of market values, not historical costs.
    5. uses the market rate of return.
  8. The firm's capital structure refers to:
    1. the way a firm invests its assets.
    2. the amount of capital in the firm.
    3. the amount of dividends a firm pays.
    4. the mix of debt and equity used to finance the firm's assets.
    5. how much cash the firm holds.
  9. A general rule for managers to follow is to set the firm's capital structure such that:
    1. the firm's value is minimized.
    2. the firm's value is maximized.
    3. the firm's bondholders are made well off.
    4. the firms suppliers of raw materials are satisfied.
    5. the firms dividend payout is maximized.
  10. A levered firm is a company that has:
    1. Accounts Payable as the only liability on the balance sheet.
    2. has some debt in the capital structure.
    3. has all equity in the capital structure.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  11. A manager should attempt to maximize the value of the firm by:
    1. changing the capital structure if and only if the value of the firm increases.
    2. changing the capital structure if and only if the value of the firm increases to the benefits to inside management.
    3. changing the capital structure if and only if the value of the firm increases only to the benefits the debtholders.
    4. changing the capital structure if and only if the value of the firm increases although it decreases the stockholders' value.
    5. changing the capital structure if and only if the value of the firm increases and stockholder wealth is constant.
  12. The effect of financial leverage depends on the operating earnings of the company. Which of the following is not true?
    1. Below the indifference or break-even point in EBIT the non-levered structure is superior.
    2. Financial leverage increases the slope of the EPS line.
    3. Above the indifference or break-even point the increase in EPS for all equity plans is less than debt-equity plans.
    4. Above the indifference or break-even point the increase in EPS for all equity plans is greater than debt-equity plans.
    5. The rate of return on operating assets is unaffected by leverage.
  13. The Modigliani-Miller Proposition I without taxes states:
    1. a firm cannot change the total value of its outstanding securities by changing its capital structure proportions.
    2. when new projects are added to the firm the firm value is the sum of the old value plus the new.
    3. managers can make correct corporate decisions that will satisfy all shareholders if they select projects that maximize value.
    4. the determination of value must consider the timing and risk of the cash flows.
    5. None of the above.
  14. MM Proposition I without taxes is used to illustrate:
    1. the value of an unlevered firm equals that of a levered firm.
    2. that one capital structure is as good as another.
    3. leverage does not affect the value of the firm.
    4. capital structure changes have no effect stockholder's welfare.
    5. All of the above.
  15. A key assumption of MM's Proposition I without taxes is:
    1. that financial leverage increases risk.
    2. that individuals can borrow on their own account at rates less than the firm.
    3. that individuals must be able to borrow on their own account at rates equal to the firm.
    4. managers are acting to maximize the value of the firm.
    5. All of the above.
  16. In an EPS-EBI graphical relationship, the slope of the debt ray is steeper than the equity ray. The debt ray has a lower intercept because:
    1. more shares are outstanding for the same level of EBI.
    2. the break-even point is higher with debt.
    3. a fixed interest charge must be paid even at low earnings.
    4. the amount of interest per share has only a positive effect on the intercept.
    5. the higher the interest rate the greater the slope.
  17. In an EPS-EBI graphical relationship, the debt ray and equity ray cross. At this point the equity and debt are:
    1. equivalent with respect to EPS but above and below this point equity is always superior.
    2. at breakeven in EPS but above this point debt increases EPS via leverage and decreases EPS below this point.
    3. equal but away from breakeven equity is better as fewer shares are outstanding.
    4. at breakeven and MM Proposition II states that debt is the better choice.
    5. at breakeven and debt is the better choice below breakeven because small payments can be made.
  18. When comparing levered vs. unlevered capital structures, leverage works to increase EPS for high levels of EBIT because:
    1. interest payments on the debt vary with EBIT levels.
    2. interest payments on the debt stay fixed, leaving less income to be distributed over less shares.
    3. interest payments on the debt stay fixed, leaving more income to be distributed over less shares.
    4. interest payments on the debt stay fixed, leaving less income to be distributed over more shares.
    5. interest payments on the debt stay fixed, leaving more income to be distributed over more shares.
  19. Financial leverage impacts the performance of the firm by:
    1. increasing the volatility of the firm's EBIT.
    2. decreasing the volatility of the firm's EBIT.
    3. decreasing the volatility of the firm's net income.
    4. increasing the volatility of the firm's net income
    5. None of the above.
  20. The increase in risk to equityholders when financial leverage is introduced is evidenced by:
    1. higher EPS as EBIT increases.
    2. a higher variability of EPS with debt than all equity.
    3. increased use of homemade leverage.
    4. equivalence value between levered and unlevered firms in the presence of taxes.
    5. None of the above.
  21. The reason that MM Proposition I does not hold in the presence of corporate taxation is because:
    1. levered firms pay less taxes compared with identical unlevered firms.
    2. bondholders require higher rates of return compared with stockholders.
    3. earnings per share are no longer relevant with taxes.
    4. dividends are no longer relevant with taxes.
    5. All of the above.
  22. MM Proposition I with corporate taxes states that:
    1. capital structure can affect firm value.
    2. by raising the debt-to-equity ratio, the firm can lower its taxes and thereby increase its total value.
    3. firm value is maximized at an all debt capital structure.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
  23. The change in firm value in the presence of corporate taxes only is:
    1. positive as equityholders face a lower effective tax rate.
    2. positive as equityholders gain the tax shield on the debt interest.
    3. negative because of the increased risk of default and fewer shares outstanding.
    4. negative because of a reduction of equity outstanding.
    5. None of the above.
  24. A firm should select the capital structure which:
    1. produces the highest cost of capital.
    2. maximizes the value of the firm.
    3. minimizes taxes.
    4. is fully unlevered.
    5. has no debt.
  25. In a world of no corporate taxes if the use of leverage does not change the value of the levered firm relative to the unlevered firm this is known as:
    1. MM Proposition III that the cost of stock is less than the cost of debt.
    2. MM Proposition I that leverage is invariant to market value.
    3. MM Proposition II that the cost of equity is always constant.
    4. MM Proposition I that the market value of the firm is invariant to the capital structure.
    5. MM Proposition III that there is no risk associated with leverage in a no tax world.
  26. Mr. A invested in Stock of X Ltd. when the firm was financed solely with equity. The firm is now utilizing debt in its capital structure. To unlever his position, Mr. A needs to:
    1. borrow some money and purchase additional shares of X ltd.
    2. maintain his current position as the debt of the firm did not affect his personal leverage position.
    3. sell some shares of X ltd. and hold the proceeds in cash.
    4. sell some shares of X ltd. and loan it out such that he creates a personal debt-equity ratio equal to that of the firm.
    5. create a personal debt-equity ratio that is equal to exactly 50% of the debt-equity ratio of the firm.
  27. The capital structure chosen by a firm doesn’t really matter because of:
    1. taxes.
    2. the interest tax shield.
    3. the relationship between dividends and earnings per share.
    4. the effects of leverage on the cost of equity.
    5. homemade leverage.
  28. MM Proposition I with no tax supports the argument that:
    1. business risk determines the return on assets.
    2. the cost of equity rises as leverage rises.
    3. it is completely irrelevant how a firm arranges its finances.
    4. a firm should borrow money to the point where the tax benefit from debt is equal to the cost of the increased probability of financial distress.
    5. financial risk is determined by the debt-equity ratio.
  29. The proposition that the value of a levered firm is equal to the value of an unlevered firm is known as:
    1. MM Proposition I with no tax.
    2. MM Proposition II with no tax.
    3. MM Proposition I with tax.
    4. MM Proposition II with tax.
    5. static theory proposition.
  30. The concept of homemade leverage is most associated with:
    1. MM Proposition I with no tax.
    2. MM Proposition II with no tax.
    3. MM Proposition I with tax.
    4. MM Proposition II with tax.
    5. static theory proposition.
  31. Which of the following statements are correct in relation to MM Proposition II with no taxes? I) The return on assets is equal to the weighted average cost of capital.    II) Financial risk is determined by the debt-equity ratio.    III) Financial risk determines the return on assets. IV) The cost of equity declines when the amount of leverage used by a firm rises.
    1. I and III only
    2. II and IV only
    3. I and II only
    4. III and IV only
    5. I and IV only
  32. A company has a financial structure where equity is 70% of its total debt plus equity. Its cost of equity is 10% and gross loan interest is 5%. Corporation tax is paid at 30%. What is the company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC)?
    1. 7.45%
    2. 7.50%
    3. 8.05%
    4. 8.50%
  33. When sequential long-term financing is involved, the choice of debt or equity influences the future financial          of the firm.
    1. timing
    2. flexibility
    3. liquidity
  34. The CAPM considers risk using the:
    1. ­Ł×¬ factor
    2. ­Ł×ź factor
    3. ­Ł×Á factor
    4. ­Ł×░ factor
  35. Which of the following items is not allowable for corporation tax?
  36. A budget is not:
    1. a plan
    2. a part of the strategic management process
    3. a qualitative statement
    4. a forecast
  37. A forecast is not:
    1. a budget
    2. based on expert opinion
    3. a prediction of future events
    4. based on extrapolation of past data
  38. Strategic plans are:
    1. budgets
    2. short-term
    3. long-term
    4. forecasts
  39. Important aspects of operationalising strategy for budget purposes do not include:
    1. identification of required resources
    2. implementation of appropriate control systems
    3. calculating depreciation and amortisation
    4. development of appropriate performance criteria
  40. The assumptions underlying a company’s financial planning model do not include:
    1. levels of investment
    2. levels of working capital
    3. levels of directors’ remuneration
    4. levels of sales growth
  41. The broad purposes of budgeting do not include:
    1. development of overseas markets
    2. communication
    3. planning and control
    4. co-ordination
  42. The strategic plan of a business may not be most successful if:
    1. it is based on realistic levels of performance
    2. there is full communication and participation
    3. assumptions are made available to all managers
    4. managers are given demanding targets
  43. Strategic planning is not the process of:
    1. deciding on levels of pay
    2. deciding on policies regarding resources
    3. deciding on organisational objectives
    4. deciding on resources required to meet objectives
  44. The purpose of strategic planning is not to consider:
    1. long-term financing
    2. expected growth
    3. methods of tax evasion
    4. dividend policy
  45. Which of the following is not one of perspectives within the balanced scorecard:
    1. customer perspective
    2. internal business process perspective
    3. learning and growth perspective
    4. taxation perspective

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